In quantum computing, information is encoded in qubits or quantum bit and is the basic unit of quantum information. Quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a coherent superposition of both states simultaneously, a property that is fundamental to quantum mechanics and quantum computing.
Altcoins are cryptocurrency alternatives to Bitcoin using the same Blockchain technology to enable secure peer-to-peer transactions. Examples altcoins are Ethereum (ETH), Solana (SOL), Polkadot (DOT), Dogecoin (DOGE), Litecoin (LTC), Shiba Inu (SHIB), SafeMoon (SAFEMOON).
Data Scientists and Analysts use data analytics techniques in their research, and businesses use it to make better decisions, understand customers, evaluate ad campaigns, personalize content, create content strategies and develop products.
Artificial Intelligence is intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans. It is used to describe computers that simulate human intelligence and mimic cognitive abilities humans associate with the human mind.
Automation is the creation and application of technologies to produce and deliver goods and services with minimal human intervention. The implementation of automation technologies, techniques and processes improve the efficiency, reliability, and / or speed of many tasks that were previously performed by humans.
Amazon Web Services provides on-demand cloud computing platforms and APIs to individuals, companies, and governments, on a metered pay as you go basis that includes a mixture of infrastructure as a service(IaaS), platform as a service(PaaS) and packaged software as a service(SaaS) offerings.
Azure Quantum is an open ecosystem bringing the most innovative quantum computing and optimization solutions into a single marketplace. The Quantum Development Kit is capable of processing up to 32 qubits on a user machine and up to 40 qubits on Azure.
Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze large sets of structured, semi structured and unstructured data and systematically extract information from and deal with data sets that are too large or complex to be dealt with by traditional data processing application software.
Bitcoin (BTC) is a decentralized digital currency that can be sent from user to user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network without the need for intermediaries. Transactions are verified by network nodes through cryptography and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain.
A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed, and oftentimes public, digital ledger consisting of records called blocks that is used to record transactions across many computers so that any involved block cannot be altered retroactively, without the alteration of all subsequent blocks.
Bitcoin (BTC) is the world's largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization and is created, distributed, traded, and stored with the use of a decentralized ledger system, known as a blockchain. Supported markets/exchanges: Binance, Bitfinex, Bittrex, CoinbasePro, Poloniex, Kraken, Hitbtc.
Cardano is an open-source and decentralized public blockchain platform which can facilitate peer-to-peer transactions with its internal cryptocurrency, Ada. Consensus is achieved using proof of stake with a protocol named Ouroboros that uses significantly less energy than proof-of-work like Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Chainer is an open source Python deep learning framework built on top of NumPy and CuPy libraries and supports CUDA computation for writing complex neural network architectures with a define-by-run scheme. Apps such as sentiment analysis, machine translation, speech recognition, question answering.
Chainlink is a decentralized blockchain oracle network built on Ethereum which allows smart contracts to securely connect tamper-proof data from off-chain sources to on-chain smart contracts. It can be used to verify whether parameters of a smart contract are met.
In Data Science a Classifier is a type of machine learning algorithm used to assign a label to input data. They are trained using labeled data and pattern recognition to assign output value to a given input value. Typical uses are Classification and clustering.
The Confidential Consortium Framework is an open source blockchain framework compatible with any protocol including Hyperledger Sawtooth, Ethereum, Corda and Quorum. It simplifies consensus and reduces duplicative validation by creating a trusted network on nodes, where participants' identities are known and controlled.
Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit (CNTK) is an open source framework for distributed deep learning suitable for commercial applications that describes neural networks as a series of computational steps via a directed graph, leaf nodes represent input values, other nodes represent the operations.
Computer vision is a field of artificial intelligence (AI) that enables systems to derive meaningful information from many forms of image data such as video sequences, views from multiple cameras, multidimensional data from a 3D scanner, or medical scanning device.
Cosmos DB is a proprietary globally distributed, multi-model database service that supports multiple data models using one backend. It is schema-agnostic, horizontally scalable, and generally classified as a NoSQL database used for document, key value, relational, and graph models.
Couchbase Server is an open-source, distributed multi-model NoSQL document-oriented database based on (JSON) with all the desired capabilities of a relational DBMS, and optimized for interactive applications which serve many concurrent users by creating, storing, retrieving, aggregating, manipulating and presenting data.
Crypto Airdrops are free tokens that you are eligible to receive as a result of being an early adopter of a cryptocurrency project and aim to take advantage of network effect by engaging existing holders of a particular blockchain-based currency, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum in their currency or project.
Cryptocurrency is a collection of binary data which is designed to work as a medium of exchange that is encrypted and decentralized and takes the form of tokens or coins that are part of a Blockchain Network. They are generally fiat currencies, as they are not backed by or convertible into a commodity.
Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), is a parallel computing platform and API that allows software to use GPUs for general purpose processing and designed to work with languages such as C, C++, and Fortran. CUDA-powered GPUs also support frameworks such as OpenMP, OpenACC and OpenCL by compiling such code to CUDA.
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAO) are entities with no central leadership represented by rules encoded in a Blockchain, controlled by the members and not influenced by a central government. Decisions are governed by proposals and voting with a set of rules enforced with Smart Contracts on a blockchain.
Decentralized applications (DApp) are typically open-source applications that run on a blockchain network and can have frontend code and user interfaces written in any language that can make calls to its backend. They have been utilized in decentralized finance (DeFi), in which DApp performs financial functions on blockchains.
Dash is an open source altcoin cryptocurrency and decentralized payment network forked from the Bitcoin protocol. Governance is handled through a DAO run by a subset of its users called master nodes. And splits its rewards into three categories: 45% goes to miners, 45% goes to master nodes and 10% goes towards its decentralized governance budget.
Data science uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from noisy data, and apply knowledge to a broad range of application domains. This is done using mathematics, statistics, computer science, information science, domain knowledge, programming, data mining, machine learning and big data.
Deep learning is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on neural networks with an unbounded number of layers of bounded size to deal with complex input-output mappings. It has been for computer vision, speech recognition, NLP, machine translation, bioinformatics, drug design, protein binding, medical image analysis and material inspection.
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is a blockchain-based form of finance that primarily utilizes smart contracts on the Ethereum Blockchain. The platforms allow buyers, sellers, lenders, and borrowers to speculate on price movements on a range of assets using derivatives, trade cryptocurrencies, insure against risks, and earn interest in savings-like accounts.
DevOps is a software development and IT operations philosophy that is complementary with Agile development that promotes better communication and collaboration between teams and others in an organization. It aims to shorten the development life cycle and provide continuous delivery with high software quality.
Docker is a set of platform as a service (PaaS) container products for applications which uses fewer resources than virtual machines. It uses OS-level virtualization to allow developers pack, ship, and run apps as a lightweight, portable, self-sufficient container which separates your apps from your infrastructure.
Dogecoin is a peer-to-peer, open-source cryptocurrency based on the Scrypt algorithm, and considered the 1st Meme coin and the 1st dog coin, it has become the fifth largest cryptocurrency by market cap. It is named after an internet meme centered around the image of a Shiba Inu dog.
DynamoDB is a fully managed proprietary NoSQL database service that supports data document structures and key-valued cloud services, it uses synchronous replication across multiple data centers for high durability and availability and allows auto-scaling, in-memory caching, backup and restore options for internet-scale applications.
Encog is a machine learning framework available for Java and .Net and contains classes to create a wide variety of networks, as well as support classes to normalize and process data for neural networks. The workbench helps model and train neural networks and supports different learning algorithms such as Bayesian Networks, Hidden Markov Models and Support Vector Machines.
ERC20 tokens are blockchain-based assets hosted on the Ethereum network. Numerous cryptocurrencies have launched as ERC-20 tokens and have been distributed through initial coin offerings which makes then useful for things like medium of exchange, voting rights, staking, and use gas to cover transaction fees.
Ethereum is a decentralized, open-source blockchain with smart contract functionality using ERC-20 tokens to run decentralized applications (DApps). Its native currency Ether(ETH) is used to pay transaction fees and is second only to Bitcoin in market capitalization. Proof of stake is used for consensus and aims to increase transaction throughput using sharding.
FinTech is an emerging industry that uses technology to improve activities in financial services, cryptocurrency, retail banking, mobile banking, insurance and investment management. Consisting of new applications, processes, products and business models that provided end-to-end processes via the Internet to make financial services more accessible to the general public.
The Go Programming Language is an open source statically typed, compiled programming language that is syntactically similar to C, but with memory safety, garbage collection, structural typing, and CSP-style concurrency and makes it easy to build simple, reliable, and efficient machine learning and Artificial Intelligence apps.
Hadoop is an open-source Java framework for storing structured and semi-structured data, data processing and running applications on clusters of many computers. The distributed file system (HDFS) splits files into blocks and distributes them across nodes in a cluster. Jobs are spread into smaller workloads to be run in parallel using MapReduce.
Hedera Hashgraph (HBAR) is a patented distributed ledger technology described as an alternative to blockchains which provides increased speed, fairness, low cost, and security constraints. Its consensus algorithm consists of gossip about gossip and Virtual Voting to create directed acyclic graphs without bundling them into blocks.
HBase is an open-source column-oriented non-relational distributed database written in Java that runs on top of Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) for real-time data processing or random read/write access to large volumes of big data. It features compression, in-memory operation, and filters on a per-column basis and fault-tolerance.
Hyperledger is an open-source community focused on developing a suite of stable frameworks, including Hyperledger Fabric, Sawtooth, Composer, Cello, tools, and libraries for permissioned blockchain deployments. It is a global collaboration that includes leaders in finance, banking, Internet of Things, supply chains, manufacturing, and technology.
Initial Coin Offerings are a type of funding for startup companies using cryptocurrencies by creating new coins, apps, or services to raise capital directly from the public with crowdfunding, venture capitalists, banks, and stock exchanges, and may fall outside existing regulations depending on the nature of the project.
The ImageNet project is a large visual dataset of over 14 million annotated images in 20,000+ categories designed for use in visual object recognition software research with Machine Learning and Deep Neural Networks. The dataset consists of three parts, training data, validation data, and image labels.
Internet of Things is the network of physical devices that are embedded with sensors and software for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the internet. It has evolved due to convergence of multiple technologies, including ubiquitous computing, commodity sensors, embedded systems, and machine learning.
IOTA is an open-source distributed ledger designed to record and execute transactions between machines and devices in the IOT ecosystem. It uses a directed acyclic graph to store transactions on its ledger and nodes that issue a new transaction on the network must approve two previous transactions.
Jupyter Notebooks are open-source server-client web applications for creating running and sharing documents that contain data, code, visualizations and text. Its interface allows users to configure and arrange workflows and is used for data science, statistical modeling, machine learning, and more.
Keras is an open-source Python library that provides an interface for ANNs that run on top of TensorFlow, CNTK, or Theano and PlaidML. It is user-friendly, modular, and extensible for experimentation with neural networks, classification, text generation and summarization, tagging, parsing, machine translation, speech recognition, and others.
Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration platform that works with a variety of container runtimes such as Docker, Containerd, and CRI-O. It allows for automating application deployment, scaling, and management. Extensibility is provided by the API which is used by internal components as well as extensions and containers.
The Lightning Network is a decentralized layer 2 payment protocol using smart contracts and designed to be layered on top of a blockchain-based cryptocurrencies to allow off-chain transactions between cryptocurrencies. Multiple payment channels between parties make up the second layer and has a peer-to-peer system for making micropayments without delegating custody of funds.
Linux is an open-source OS based on the Linux kernel and typically packaged in distributions like Debian, Fedora, Ubuntu, Red Hat and SUSE. Desktop distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, and GUI such as GNOME or KDE, whereas server distributions may omit graphics altogether, or include a solution stack such as LAMP.
Litecoin is a altcoin currency that is decentralized and nearly identical to Bitcoin but differs in aspects like faster block generation rate and use of Scrypt as a proof-of-work (PoW) scheme. Developers chose Scrypt initially so that LTC mining wouldn’t be dominated by ASIC-based miners, allowing GPU and CPU-based miners to compete.
Machine Learning is a branch of artificial intelligence which can learn from data, identify patterns and make decisions with minimal human intervention. It is used in applications such as medicine, email filtering, speech recognition, and computer vision where it is difficult or unfeasible to develop conventional algorithms to perform the needed tasks.
Mahout is a distributed linear algebra framework and mathematically expressive domain specific language designed to allow data scientists, mathematicians and statisticians to implement their own algorithms. Code abstracts the domain specific language from the engine where the code is run and has Native Solvers for CPU/GPU/CUDA acceleration.
MATLAB is a proprietary programming language used in deep learning, machine learning, signal processing, communications, image and video processing and control systems. Its supports dimensional data visualization, matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms and the creation of user interfaces.
Matplotlib is a cross-platform, data visualization and graphical plotting library for Python and extends NumPy's numerical mathematics. It provides developers an object-oriented API for embedding plots into GUI applications using general-purpose GUI toolkits like Tkinter, wxPython, Qt, or GTK.
Monero is an open-source decentralized privacy-oriented cryptocurrency that provides users with anonymity and designed to keep wallets and transactions completely anonymous, including to network members, developers, and miners and uses ring signatures, zero-knowledge proofs, and stealth addresses to obfuscate transaction details.
MongoDB is an open source document-oriented NoSQL database used for high volume data storage that makes use of JSON-like documents with dynamic schema and collections which contain sets of documents and function which is the equivalent of relational database tables.
Nano is an open-source decentralized cryptocurrency created to address scalability issues associated with blockchain based assets. Its ledger technology uses a block-lattice data structure known as directed acyclic graph (DAG) and an Open Representative Voting (ORV) consensus algorithm similar to proof of stake.
Nethereum is a .Net SDK library used to support access to the Ethereum blockchain in .Net applications. The cross-platform library contains functions for writing smart contracts, cryptographic wallets, decentralized apps, managing blockchain data, and interaction with Ethereum nodes whether they are public, like Geth, Parity or private, like Quorum and Besu.
Neural Networks are a series of algorithms that recognize underlying relationships in a set of data through a process that mimics the way the human brain operates. They are trained by processing examples, which contains a known input and result, which creates associations between the two.
An NFT is a non-fungible digital asset that exists on a blockchain and can be traded and sold on digital markets. It represents real-world objects like art, music, videos, photos, 3D models, audio, and other types of digital files. Authentication of each digital file includes a digital signature that is used to provide a public proof of ownership.
NoSQL are non-relational databases with flexible data structures such as key–value pair, wide column, graph, or document which are more flexible than relational databases and increase performance at scale. Some issues are stale reads and data consistency, ability to perform ad hoc joins across tables, standardized interfaces and ACID transactions.
NumPy is an open-source library for Python which provides high-level mathematical functions for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, including linear algebra, Fourier Transform, matrices, broadcasting, access values, manipulate arrays and various distribution functions.
ONNX is an open-source ecosystem of AI companies and research organizations that establish standards for representing ML algorithms and software tools. Each framework supporting ONNX enables developers to use models with a variety of data types, frameworks, tools, runtimes, and compilers.
OpenAI provides access to the Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3 (GPT-3) API which is an autoregressive language model that uses deep learning to produce human-like text and perform a wide variety of NLP tasks, and Codex, which translates natural language to code.
OpenNLP is an open source machine learning based toolkit for the processing of natural language text. The OpenNLP API is written in Java and supports common NLP tasks such as entity recognition, sentence detection, language detection, part-of-speech tagging, tokenization, chunking, parsing, and coreference resolution.
Open Pulse is a programming language within the Qiskit open source quantum computing framework, to specify pulse-level control to quantum hardware independent of the specific hardware implementation. The core of the language are the concepts of ports, waveforms and frames to engineer noise and change quantum signals.
OpenQASM, is a quantum computing programming language designed to describe program instruction transformed from high-level to pulse-level control, gate timing, and classical control flow, to program the quantum gates and measurement operations which form the building blocks of quantum computation.
Polkadot (DOT) is an open source, distributed blockchain network that enables the blockchains built on top of it, known as parachains, and enables cross-blockchain transfers of any type of data or asset, not just tokens with a wide variety of blockchains in the Polkadot network creating a blockchain of blockchains or multichain.
PyData is used to create complete solutions in Python with tools for scientific computing, advanced data analysis, visualization, statistical inference, machine learning and interactive computing. The PyData ecosystem has a large number of solutions like Pandas, NumPy, and Scikit-Learn.
Python is a general purpose, interpreted high-level programming language used for prototyping algorithms for AI, science, engineering, data analytics, deep learning, websites and custom software. Its language constructs help programmers write clear, logical code with an object-oriented approach, intuitive syntax, basic control flow, and data structures.
PyTorch is an open source Python library based on the Torch library using GPUs and CPUs. It is used for neural networks, deep learning, machine learning, computer vision, natural language processing, machine translation, classification, text generation and tagging. Functionality can be extended with libraries such as NumPy, SciPy, Cython, TensorFlow and Keras.
Qiskit is a Python open-source SDK software framework for working with noisy quantum computers at the level of pulses, circuits, and algorithms. It follows the circuit model for universal quantum computation, and has tools such as OpenQASM to design quantum programs and experiments and run them on prototype or real quantum computers or classical simulators.
Quantitative analysts (Quants) are experts at analyzing and managing data in finance and risk management to make decisions through the use of mathematical and statistical methods. The process consists of developing and implementing complex models, searching vast databases for patterns, statistical arbitrage, and automated algorithmic high-frequency trading strategies.
Quantum computers harness the power of quantum physics to create calculations based on the use of sub-atomic particles such as electrons, neutrinos, and photons, quantum states, quantum mechanics, superposition, entanglement, and quantum interference.
Quantum Katas are open-source, self-paced tutorials and programming exercises aimed at teaching the elements of quantum computing and Q# programming. They introduce the basic concepts and algorithms used in quantum computing, including the math, links to reference material, solutions and explanations, as well as a unit testing framework.
In quantum computing, information is encoded in qubits or quantum bit and is the basic unit of quantum information. Quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a coherent superposition of both states simultaneously, a property that is fundamental to quantum mechanics and quantum computing.
Ripple XRP is a real-time gross digital payment settlement asset exchange and remittance network for financial transactions representing fiat currency, cryptocurrency or various commodities similar to SWIFT.
Robotics is a branch of computer science and engineering which involves design, construction, and use of machines to perform tasks done traditionally by human beings. Such robots attempt to perform simple repetitive tasks replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, or any other human activity.
Scala is a strong statically typed general-purpose programming language used in Data processing, distributed computing, and web development. It supports both object-oriented and functional programming with many features like Scheme, Standard ML, and Haskell, including currying, immutability, lazy evaluation, and pattern matching.
Scikit-learn is an open source Python library built upon tools such as NumPy, Pandas, and Matplotlib. It contains tools for Machine Learning and Statistical Modeling including Clustering and Dimensionality Reduction, Support Vector Machines, Linear and Logistic Regression Classification, Nearest Neighbors Clustering, Model Selection Preprocessing and Min-Max Normalization.
SciPy is an open-source Python library used for scientific and technical computing built on the NumPy extension which allows data to be manipulated and visualized with high-level commands, and other tools like Matplotlib. It contains modules for tasks such as optimization, linear algebra, integration, interpolation, signal and image processing, ODE solvers, gradient optimization.
Segregated Witness, or SegWit is an architecture change to a Blockchain network and transactions that removes signature data from transactions which lowers fees, increases throughput, frees up space and capacity to add more transactions to the chain. Its goal is to solve transaction issues and prepare the way for Layer 2 Bitcoin scaling.
Shiba Inu SHIB is a decentralized cryptocurrency that has been characterized as a meme coin and issued as a token compatible with Ethereum wallets and available on decentralized exchanges. It has potential to be incorporated into ETH-based DeFi applications like lending and savings products and NFT marketplaces.
Smart contracts are automatic self-executing programs stored across a distributed decentralized Blockchain network. They run when predetermined conditions of a contract or an agreement are met, and permit trusted transactions and agreements to be carried out among disparate, anonymous parties without the need for a central authority, are trackable and irreversible.
Solana is an open-source blockchain project to host scalable DAPPS with it's internal cryptocurrency SOL. Consensus is done using the proof of stake mechanism to verify transactions, and is much faster in terms of the number of transactions it can process and has significantly lower transaction fees and associated costs.
Apache Solr is an open source enterprise search platform built upon Lucene, a Java subproject library for search and indexing. Features include full-text distributed search, hit highlighting, faceted search, real-time indexing and replication, dynamic clustering, database integration, NoSQL features and rich document handling, and designed for scalability and fault tolerance.
Apache Spark is an open-source unified analytics engine for large-scale big data processing workloads, utilizing in-memory caching, iterative training algorithms for machine learning, interactive/exploratory data analysis, resilient distributed dataset(RDD), optimized query execution for fast analytic queries against big data, parallelism and fault tolerance.
Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies that derive their price from the value of some other underlying asset like the US dollar or a commodity's price such as gold, which dramatically reduces volatility relative to unpegged cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.
Stellar is an open-source decentralized network exchange and protocol using blockchain technology along with its native XLM token. It works alongside existing cryptocurrencies, forex, or securities assets to create digital representations to connect banks, payment systems and individuals.
SynapseML is an open-source library to build massive large scale ML pipelines. Unifying several existing frameworks into a single API that is usable across Python, R, Scala, and Java, to enable new kinds of machine learning, analytics, model deployment, workflows and transformers.
Tether USDT is an open source peer-to-peer blockchain digital stablecoin currency hosted on the Ethereum blockchain which aims to keep Cryptocurrency valuations stable and offer liquidity.
Ubuntu is a free and open-source Linux distribution based on Debian with three editions: Desktop, Server, and Core for IOT devices and robots. The advantage of Ubuntu is privacy and additional security without using third party solutions.